Glycine betaine is an alkaline substance with strong hygroscopic properties. Therefore, it is often treated with an anti-caking agent in the manufacturing process. Its molecular structure and application effect are not significantly different from natural betaine, which is equivalent to chemical synthesis.
1. Anti-fatty liver: Rats are given orally for a long time (75 days), which can raise the level of phospholipids in blood and liver. Pre- or simultaneous administration of this product can counteract the content of phospholipids and total cholesterol in rat liver caused by carbon tetrachloride. Reduced, and improved; BSP, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase and other tests have improved. The effect of hydrazine on lipid metabolism or anti-fatty liver is mainly due to the presence of betaine, which acts as a methyl donor in the body.
2. Antihypertensive: Mild antihypertensive effect on anesthetized animals, but not effective for hypertension.
3. Anti-tumor: In combination with D-isoascorbic acid, it can inhibit the mitosis of sarcoma 37, Ehrlich’s carcinoma and lymphoid leukemia L1210 (LE) in vitro, and the effect is stronger than that of the drug alone.
4. Others: Its chloride aluminum salt has anti-ulcer effect and treats gastritis and promotes wound healing. There are still antiperspirant and deodorant effects.
Anti-tumor, lowering blood pressure, anti-peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal dysfunction, treating liver disease. As a feed additive, it provides a methyl donor function and saves some methionine. It has the functions of regulating the osmotic pressure in the body, relieving stress, promoting fat metabolism and protein synthesis, increasing the rate of lean meat, and enhancing the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs. Used as an attractant in aquatic animal feed.
Maintain cell osmotic pressure
When subjected to saline or water stress, a large amount of organic osmotic regulators such as betaine accumulate in the cytoplasm, while the inorganic osmotic regulator in the cytoplasm mainly assists in squeezing to vacuoles, causing cytoplasm and intracellular vacuoles) The external environment maintains an osmotic balance, thus avoiding the toxicity of high concentrations of inorganic ions to enzymes and metabolism. The accumulation of betaine in plants under salt stress is an important physiological phenomenon that is beneficial to the growth of plants under stress, and its content is positively correlated with the salt tolerance of plants.
Protective effect on enzymes
Glycine betaine has high solubility and no static charge. Its high concentration has no effect on many enzymes and other biological macromolecules, and even has protective effects. Glycine betaine can protect the beet root cell membrane, prevent heat damage, increase the temperature required for thermal denaturation of the enzyme; protect the spinach-like capsule membrane against freezing stress; relieve the toxicity of high-concentration salt on enzyme activity; prevent dehydration-induced protein thermodynamics Interference; also has a good protective effect on aerobic respiration and energy metabolism processes. Glycine betaine has a stabilizing effect on PSH peripheral skin.
Glycine betaine can be rapidly synthesized and accumulated in high concentrations in the body, which has no feedback inhibition in the biosynthesis reaction and produces NAOH. Among the more than 150 metabolites studied, betaine is the best osmotic regulator, and very low concentrations of exogenous betaine have a good effect. For example, if the culture medium contains o8m (the growth of E. coli completely stops, but the addition of 10 gal), the growth of the betaine is completely restored. When the stress is relieved, the proline content in the leaves and roots is immediately Decreased, while the content of betaine remained basically stable. This indicates that the accumulation of proline is a temporary response of plants to stress, while the accumulation of betaine may be permanent or semi-permanent. The characteristics of slow betaine metabolism indicate The regulation of betaine metabolism is mainly determined by synthesis.
Affects the distribution of inorganic ions
Barley can accumulate betaine under salt stress. In the study of mangrove plants that accumulate betaine, the garoon et al found that betaine can be transported through the betaine/P roline transporter. Liu Jun et al. observed the alleviation effect of barley on salt stress by applying exogenous betaine. The results showed that betaine could decrease the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation and increase the water content of barley seedling roots and the fresh weight of seedlings under salt stress. Betaine treatment can significantly reduce the Na water ratio in the root system. In the leaves, due to the large amount of interception of the roots to the phoenix!, the ratio of lm (the sylvestre in the leaves treated with betaine is significantly lower than that of the salt treatment. Betaine can trap ca2 + in the root system, and this interception may be related to the root system. Resistance to salt damage is of great significance. In addition, betaine has a certain regulatory effect on stomatal movement, respiration and related gene expression under adverse conditions