Beta-carotene (C40H56) is one of the carotenoids and an orange-soluble fat-soluble compound. It is the most common and stable natural pigment in nature. Many natural foods such as green vegetables, sweet potatoes, carrots, spinach, papaya, and mango. .. etc., there are abundant β-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant that has detoxification effect and is an indispensable nutrient for maintaining human health. It has significant functions in anti-cancer, prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cataracts and anti-oxidation, and thus prevents aging and aging. A variety of degenerative diseases.
1. Fats and fatty acids: Carotene is fat-soluble, and fat plays a role in transporting carotene. The fat content in the diet affects the absorption of it. The fat in the diet is formed by the action of trypsin and bile salts, and it is dissolved and absorbed together. Fat stimulates bile to secrete emulsified fat, which promotes the absorption of carotenoids.
2. Cholate: bile emulsified fat, so that fat into small colloidal particles, easy to absorb in the liquid environment of the small intestine, thereby promoting the absorption of carotenoids dissolved in fat. When it is dissolved in the colloidal solution, it can neither be absorbed nor broken to form an ester in the absence of bile, indicating that bile not only helps the intestinal cavity to dissolve, but also participates in the absorption, cleavage and esterification of carotene. The process, and bile promotes the absorption of carotenoids without interspecific specificity. The substances that play a role in bile are combined bile acids and bile salts. The optimal concentration for promoting absorption is 0.04~0.008 mol/L, and the concentration is too high, but it inhibits.
3. Vitamin A: the content of vitamin A in the diet also affects the absorption of carotenoids. Studies have shown that lack of vitamin A increases carotene rupture. In the absence of vitamin A, intestinal epithelial cells absorb carotene and decrease. However, although the ability of small intestinal mucosal cells to absorb carotene decreased, the total carotenoid absorption increased, which may be related to lymphatic absorption, indicating that vitamin A deficiency can lead to an increase in the net absorption of it.
4. Other factors: Many studies have shown that there is an antagonistic or synergistic effect between hydrocarbon carotenoids and oxygenated carotenoids such as canthaxanthin, lutein, and lycopene. Lutein prevents the absorption of it, but does not affect the breakdown of it. When lutein is dominant, this inhibition is very significant. Various dietary fibers include pectin, which is high in the diet (5%-20 %) will affect the body’s utilization of carotene, and the effect of pectin is greater than cellulose, agar and grain bran; protein levels in the diet also affect the absorption of it, protein level is beneficial to carotene break Retinal, which is beneficial to maintain the diffusion of carotene gradient; sufficient dietary protein content can increase the activity of carotene plus dioxygenase, in addition, the carotenoids in the diet and suitable Fe, vitamin E and containing – SH Substrate substances such as glutathione, thiol, etc., are all beneficial to the normal functioning of the enzyme.
1. Maintain the integrity of the skin and mucous layer to prevent dry and rough skin;
2. Forming photosensitive substances in visual cells;
3. Promote growth and development, effectively promote health and cell development, and prevent congenital deficiency. Promote the healthy growth of bones and teeth;
4. Maintain reproductive function;
5. Maintain and promote immune function. According to the data, carrots have the effect of preventing and inhibiting lung cancer. Carotene contained in carrots is converted into vitamin A after it enters the body. Each carrot molecule can be converted into two vitamin A molecules.
Carotene is a physiologically active substance that can be converted into vitamin A in animals. It can treat night blindness, dry eye disease and epithelial keratosis; it can inhibit the excessive reaction of immune active cells and quench the immunosuppressive peroxide. Maintaining the fluidity of the membrane helps maintain the membrane receptor state necessary for immune function and acts on the release of immunomodulatory molecules. Through the above mechanism, the anti-tumor function of lymphocytes, giant sputum cells or NK cells is enhanced, especially for lung cancer, esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, etc., and thus has anti-cancer, anti-cancer and anti-aging effects. It can be used as an anticancer drug in the pharmaceutical industry; it has a therapeutic effect on cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases due to its resistance to free radicals.